The antioxidants/phytochemicals/spices/herbs thread

Effect of Antioxidants Supplementation on Aging and Longevity starter here

The effects of taurine supplementation on oxidative stress indices and inflammation biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial - taurine (they even measure superoxide dismutase)

apigenin seems very interesting (chamomile flowers have it)

carotenoids, in fact, reduce DNA methylation age more than any (a certain study linnks tot his)

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potentially promising exotics: mulberry leaves, nettle leaves, Ophiopogonis Radix, Butterfly Pea (Clitoria ternatea ) Flowers

Yacon, Thymoquinone, sambucus ebulus, dacyodes edulis, amaryllidaceae

[note: some spices/herbs may cause liver damage. Even green tea can cause it in excess]. the risks are lower the purer the spice is (aka if it’s not mixed in with the bark/everything else)

KEEP IN MIND: some spices/herbs cause DNA damage (eg thymol)

curcumin: Efficacy of curcumin for age-associated cognitive decline: a narrative review of preclinical and clinical studies

chili (SO HARD TO TELL): High Chili Intake and Cognitive Function among 4582 Adults: An Open Cohort Study over 15 Years

so like, eating antioxidants away from meals is prolly useless. Eating antioxidants DURING meals helps neutralize the increased ROS you get FROM a meal (hence why fruits are healthy despite their sugar)

fruits/vegetables and ROS: Effects of a fruit-vegetable dietary pattern on oxidative stress and genetic damage in coke oven workers: a cross-sectional study | Environmental Health | Full Text (even at super-high doses)

Plums have low TAC?? (though other studies differ on this interpretation)

ALL the chemistry studies will tend to have positive reporting bias b/c negative results not seen as publication-worthy


ESH is present in the human diet. It is synthesized by most mushrooms (72), cyanobacteria, and many types of soil bacteria (73, 74), but not by plants or animals. Various plant foods contain small amounts of ESH taken up from the soil; animals that eat such plants contain ESH in their flesh. The edible fungi synthesize ESH to concentrations varying from a very high level (>100 mg/kg wet weight in oyster and king boletus mushrooms) to a much lower level (0.5 mg/kg) in the white-button commercial mushrooms, which is most commonly eaten. A detailed analysis suggests that mushrooms are a major ESH source in Europe (75). Foods known to have moderate levels of ESH (1 mg/kg wet weight) include beef, pork, lamb, and chicken. Oat bran, black turtle bean, and red kidney bean contain >3 mg/kg (72, 76).

ESH has been shown to be present in almost all human cell and tissue types, often at millimolar levels in the brain, bone marrow, lens and cornea of the eye, and erythrocytes (77, 78), where it appears to play a significant role as an antioxidant. Its function as a specialized antioxidant is thought to be implicated in CVD prevention and its redox chemistry has been reviewed previously (79, 80). Its levels decrease significantly with age past 80 y, and significantly lower levels were found in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (81). It has been suggested that ESH acts as an adaptive antioxidant for the protection of injured tissues (82). Rheumatoid arthritis has been associated with increased ESH levels in red blood cells in a case-controlled study (83). It is also present in high concentrations in mitochondria, a major source of oxidants, and it has been suggested that it may be a vitamin (84).

thiamine as antioxidant

Unraveling the antioxidant potential of thiamine: Thermochemical and kinetics studies in aqueous phase using DFT

radical adduct formation at C12 (nucleophilic lower e-density site between N and S) has the most negative gibbs free energy change. 4 types of ROS-relevant reactions (HT RAF PT SET) => a paper can be written on each. ascorbic acid is broader than thamine in absorbing a broader range of hydroxyl HO and HOO reactions (with higher negative values in radical adduct formation AND FHT).

^this paper made me understand so much more than almost any paper i read before.

single electron transfer (SET), hydrogen transfer (HT), and radical adduct formation (RAF). Rate constants and branching ratios of the different channels of reaction are provided, as well as an interpretation of the UV–vis spectra. CAP is predicted to react faster in aqueous solution than in nonpolar media with oxygenated free radicals, and it was found to be a more efficient scavenger than melatonin and caffeine. It was also found that while SET does not contribute to the overall reactivity of CAP toward •OOH, •OOCH₃, and •OCH₃ radicals, it might be important for the reactions with more electrophilic radicals such as •OH, •OCCl₃, and •OOCCl₃. The main process, responsible for the peroxyl scavenging activity of CAP, was found to be the HT from the OH phenolic group. For the reaction with •OCH₃, on the other hand, the HT from allylic sites are predicted to be the main channels of reaction

also vitA by SAME authors: Is Vitamin A an Antioxidant or a Pro-oxidant? - PubMed (why do these studies all come from universities that are well-off the prestige hierarchy?)


more info on RAF: Comparative Analysis of Radical Adduct Formation (RAF) Products and Antioxidant Pathways between Myricetin-3-O-Galactoside and Myricetin Aglycone . cross-relevance for ALL flavonols that can be glycosylated)

Flavonol is well known as an effective natural antioxidant. Experimental [13,14,15] and theoretical studies [16,17,18] have indicated that the antioxidant activity of flavonol is closely associated with the presence of 3-OH. Accordingly, 3-O-galactosylation is believed to reduce the antioxidant activity of flavonol, although no study on the mechanism of this reduction has been conducted.

Consequently, myricetin-3-O-galactoside (M3OGa) and its myricetin aglycone were selected as the representatives for the comparative study. As shown in Figure 1A, M3OGa bears a β-galactose residue at its 3-O position; thus, it can be regarded as the 3-O-galactosylation derivative of myricetin. If any difference in their antioxidant activities exists, it can be attributed to 3-O-galactosylation. Recently, M3OGa has been reported to coexist with its myricetin aglycone in white myrtle [11] and Nelumbo nucifera [12]. Their coexistence in the same plant has actually enhanced the comparability and biologically relevance of this comparative study.

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Figure 1

Structures of myricetin-3-O-galactoside (M3OGa) (A) and myricetin (B).

In the comparative study, the final products of the interaction of M3OGa and myricetin aglycone with α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•) were severally analyzed using leading-edge ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS) technology to test the possibility of radical adduct formation (RAF). The high resolution of the Q-TOF-MS technology ensures the reliability of the chemical analysis. Based on the RAF product analysis, M3OGa and myricetin were further investigated for their antioxidant pathways using relevant chemical approaches. Expectedly, the series of investigative experiments will provide profound knowledge on the mechanism of the reduction of the antioxidant activity of flavonol by 3-O-galactosylation.

In addition, the understanding of the 3-O-galactosylation process is expected to be of benefit to other types of 3-O-glycosylation processes, such as 3-O-glucosylation, 3-O-rhamnglycosylation, and 3-O-arabinosylation. This is because these 3-O-glycosylation processes are essentially not different from 3-O-galactosylation, and flavonoid-3-O-glycosides are present in plants (e.g., myricetin-3-O-glucoside, myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside, and myricetin-3-O-arabinoside). From an antioxidant chemistry viewpoint, flavonol (or its glucoside) has the same antioxidant pathways as those of other phytophenols [19,20,21,22]. Thus, the analysis of the RAF products, based on the UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS technology, will provide novel and reliable insights on the antioxidant chemistry of all types of phytophenols, especially flavonoid 3-O-glucosides (e.g., isorhamnetin 3-O-galactoside [7], hyperin [8], trifolin [9], and syringetin 3-O-galactoside [10]) and anthocyanin 3-O-galactosides (e.g., cyanidin-3-O-galactoside [23] and delphinidin-3-O-galactoside [24]).

the 3-OH part of the flavonol is the one that protects against RAF (3-hydroxy-2-phenylchromen-4-one ). the OH in flavonol IS the active site

more paper: Capsaicin, a Tasty Free Radical Scavenger: Mechanism of Action and Kinetics B - PubAg

caffeine as antioxidant: Mechanisms of potential antioxidant activity of caffeine - ScienceDirect


melatonin the BEST antioxidant - Theoretical insight into the antioxidant properties of melatonin and derivatives - Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry (RSC Publishing) free

also i love this modafinil paper - - HIGH LUMO HOMO GAP

in the image at, is [TRAR]* radical adduct formation, [TRA-H]* + RH **hydrogen atom transfer (HAT). **, and the other single electron transfer? for tryptamines?

THIS PAPER SO POWERFUL Chapter 1 Overview of Reactive Oxygen Species (RSC Publishing) DOI:10.1039/9781782622208-00001

redox potentials for all the oxidants green tomatoes are BETTER